Basic Request Model
All source code is open source and available in the Chainlink Github repository.
ChainlinkClient is a parent contract that enables smart contracts to consume data from oracles. It's available in the Chainlink smart contract library which can be installed using the latest package managers.
The client constructs and makes a request to a known Chainlink oracle through the
transferAndCall function, implemented by the LINK token. This request contains encoded information that is required for the cycle to succeed. In the
ChainlinkClient contract, this call is initiated with a call to
LINK is an ERC-677 compliant token which implements
transferAndCall, a function that allows tokens to be transferred whilst also triggering logic in the receiving contract within a single transaction.
Learn more about ERC-677 and the LINK token.
Oracle contracts are owned by oracle node operators, which run alongside offchain oracle nodes.
The client contract that initiates this cycle must create a request with the following items:
- The oracle address.
- The job ID, so the oracle knows which tasks to perform.
- The callback function, which the oracle sends the response to.
To learn about how to find oracles to suit your needs, see Find Existing Jobs.
Oracle contracts are responsible for handling onchain requests made through the LINK token, by implementing
onTokenTransfer as a
LinkTokenReceiver. Upon execution of this function, the oracle contract emits an
OracleRequest event containing information about the request. This event is crucial, as it is monitored by the offchain oracle node which acts upon it.
For fulfillment, the oracle contract has a
fulfillOracleRequest function which is used by the node to fulfill a request once it has the result of the job. This function returns the result to the
ChainlinkClient using the callback function defined in the original request.
The offchain oracle node is responsible for listening for events emitted by its corresponding onchain smart contract. Once it detects an
OracleRequest event, it uses the data emitted to perform a job.
The most common job type for a Node is to make a GET request to an API, retrieve some data from it, parse the response, convert the result into blockchain compatible data, then submit it in a transaction back to the oracle contract, using the
For more information on how to become a node operator, learn how to run a Chainlink node.
Below is a UML diagram describing the contract structure of
ATestnetConsumer, a deployed example contract implementing